Mosaic is considered one of the oldest handcraft in the Arab World which gained its magnificent oriental trait. This handcraft is graded as the first among many other handcrafts in the Middle East till now. It needs accuracy and mastery to fulfill these handcraft's masterpieces. The word "mosaic" is not from an Arabic origin, and it means putting small pieces together in a creative and professional way.
It has been argued that the origin of this great handcraft "mosaic" was Roman; however, other said that the first mosaic was created in Mesopotamia thousands of years ago. Whatever was its origin, mosaic passed on to Arab world through Spanish people, and we have many examples such as the Great Mosque at Cordoba and the Alhambra Palace. Arab People proved their proficiency, and they developed this handcraft to be as it is nowadays. The Islamic spirit and sense can be apparently noticed in the patterns and inscriptions that used in mosaic which gave it peculiar
and particular touch as a referent to Muslims. They are mainly geometric
In the Arabic countries, Syria is one of the most important countries that are specialized of mosaic. There are many lordly and splendiferous landmarks, such as Umayyad Mosque¹; the Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus is the most notable monument work in Damascus. In addition to many other Syrian monuments, such as National
Museum; everyone can notice its large walls with the magnificent handicraft mosaic on them which have a distinctive and decorative style that dated back to Golden Era in Damascus. You can also notice that in old Damascene shops and markets.
Mosaic has witnessed immense progress in the second half of the 20th century as a result of popularity and increasing demand for mosaic by Arab and foreign tourists, especially in Syria; Syria has a quick and great movement in last century with the concern of mosaic. 
The handicraftsmen of mosaic art use valuable materials such as coloured glass, shells and gold, and they select all of these materials because of their hardness and strength; in addition to the aesthetics well-designed manner.
Unique mosaic art has many different types; one of these types is glass mosaic: it has a specific kind of drawings and portrays which depend on covering the wanted area by small colourful pieces that have different shapes, such as hexahedron triangle and sixfold shape. These drawings and portrays are structured by putting these small pieces together to get finally the desired design.
Moreover, all- important mosaic is wood mosaic. This type of handcraft uses different kinds of wood, like for example lemon, cinchona, rose and walnut wood. Using shells is a basic need in this handcraft to give aesthetic touch to every piece of mosaic and for getting the final majestic and elegant shape.
In brief, mosaic handcraft is well-known until now with glorious success and popularity in our markets; even though, it dated back to several ancient stages and it is considered an explicit evident of its importance and value among Arab, particularly damascene people.
The fourth part of the rectangular mosque is an expansive, Christmasdecorations
open courtyard with a beautiful, white marble floor, surrounded by a two-storey arcade on three sides. The fourth is the facade of the prayer hall, with a blaze of golden mosaics at its centre. In the centre of the courtyard is an odd square-shaped fountain. The small octagonal mosaic structure on the western side is the dome of Treasury.